Costs and financing
The challenges of free primary education in Ethiopia
by Jeilu Oumer
Education costs and financing
2009, 96 p.
Six Steps to Abolishing Primary School Fees
by The World Bank in collaboration with UNICEF
2009, 128 p.
Download or order from UNICEF >>
The balances between the roles of the state, private sector, communities and households in education financing is under study. Recognizing that improved equity cannot be achieved without suitable financing policies,emphases includes household costs and public-private partnerships.
In recent years, an increasing number of governments have made primary education free of charge in the public sector. This measure has removed a serious barrier to primary schooling for poor households, but has raised other issues. Questions include the conditions under which the policy is sustainable, and whether it can be implemented instates with weak administrative infrastructures. Assessments are needed of the consequences of fee abolition not only for access but also for the quality of education, and judgements are needed about the priority for fee-free education at different education levels.
Moreover, in many settings official policies on fee-free education in public schools are subverted by pressures on households to pay for supplementary private tutoring, and therefore the following themes receive priority: