The Generalisation of educational innovations: the administrator's perspective: contributions to a workshop held at the IIEP

Malpica Faustor, Carlos N.; Rassekh, Shapour
215 p.

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The workshop examined the possibility of generalization of these innovations as large scale reforms and the problems which it would entail for administration. The six factors considered as being important for the adoption and diffusion of an innovation are summarized as the ORACLE formula: objects, resources, authority, consensus, linkage and environment. The innovation is evaluated in terms of pertinence, promised benefits, demand on resources, degree of complexity and compatibility. Another approach to the generalization progress puts forward four different ways: political support but low level participation, controlled expansion which sometimes lacks flexibility, crusades or campaigns with emphasis on one project, and small scale and local implementation. Three case studies illustrate national experience in administration of innovation and reform. The first concerns the Ghana experiment in continuation schools which aims at preparing school leavers without vocational qualifications for work in a rural environment. The second examines administrative problems encountered in the implementation of the Peruvian educational reform of 1972. The third case study considers the experimental programme of integrated curriculum for the first 3 years of primary education in Malaysia. The report is completed by a bibliography